Human Stem Cell Use: Adult or Tissue Stem Cell

Laying the groundwork for building a tooth: analysis of dental epithelial stem cells

To fix a broken car, the mechanic either repairs or replaces the defective part. Similarly, one of the most promising approaches physicians foresee for treating human disease and ameliorating the aging process is regenerative medicine. A major aim of this field is to restore function by repairing or replacing damaged organs. Scientists envision a day […]

Stem Cells for Immune System Regeneration to Fight Cancer

This proposal will define the biology of stem cell engineering to produce a cancer-fighting immune system. The immune system protects our body against most outside threats. However, it frequently fails to protect us from cancer. The T cell receptor (or TCR), a complex protein on the surface of an immune cell (or lymphocyte), allows to […]

Molecular dissection of adult liver regeneration to guide the generation of hepatocytes from pluripotent stem cells

The liver is a promising target for cell therapy since it supports and functionally integrates transplanted cells. Human liver contains more than 50 billion cells and more than 10% replacement will be required for most liver diseases. Hence, embryonic stem cells (ESC), which have unlimited growth capacities, represent one of the few cell types with […]

Mechanism of Tissue Engineered Small Intestine Formation

Short Bowel Syndrome is an expensive, morbid condition with an increasing incidence. Fundamental congenital and perinatal conditions such as gastroschisis, malrotation, atresia, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS). NEC is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates and primarily occurs in premature infants As rates of prematurity are increasing, so […]

Molecular Mechanisms of Trophoblast Stem Cell Specification and Self-Renewal

Prematurity/preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death in the U.S. and in California. During an average day in California, 149 babies are born preterm. These babies are at increased risk for long-term disabilities, including cerebral palsy, gastrointestinal problems, and vision and hearing loss. Many premature babies also suffer from low birth weight, which […]

VEGF signaling in adventitial stem cells in vascular physiology and disease

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. This disease results from atherosclerosis or fatty deposits in the vessel wall that causes blockage of coronary arteries. Blockage of these arteries cut off supplies of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle, causing heart attacks, heart failure or sudden death. To […]

Stem Cells in Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the most deadly cancer worldwide and accounts for more deaths than prostate cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer combined. Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. The current 5-year survival rate for all stages of NSCLC is only 15%. Although early stage lung cancer has […]

Derivation and comparative analysis of human pluripotent ESCs, iPSCs and SSCs: Convergence to an embryonic phenotype

This is an unprecedented time in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Today, we have cell lines and tools that did not exist just a few years ago. Indeed, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were derived from pre-implantation embryos just 10 years ago; more recently in the past year, cells with extensive similarities to ESCs […]

An in vitro and in vivo comparison among three different human hepatic stem cell populations.

Because there is still considerable morbidity and mortality associated with the process of transplantation, and because more than a thousand people die each year while on the liver transplantation list, it is evident that improved and safer liver transplantation would be valuable, as would approaches that provide for an increased number of transplantations in a […]

Human stem cell derived oligodendrocytes for treatment of stroke and MS

Strokes that affect the nerves cells, i.e., “gray matter”, consistently receive the most attention. However, the kind of strokes that affecting the “wiring” of the brain, i.e., “white matter”, cause nearly as much disability. The most severe disability is caused when the stroke is in the wiring (axons) that connect the brain and spinal cord; […]