Our goal is to develop human embryonic stem cell lines as models for disease. Over the course of this grant we have consented embryos from patients across the United States. These embryos were diagnosed with many different diseases, including retinoblastoma, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and Fragile X. To optimize the creation of these disease models, we have developed new techniques to increase our ES derivation frequency. We expect to continue these efforts in order to develop hESC models for diseases.