We aim to understand how blood stem cells develop from blood vessels during development. We are also interested in learning whether the blood-making program can be turned back on in blood vessel cells for blood production outside the human body. During the past year we have continued to progress in our understanding of early human hematopoiesis. We continue to evaluate new regulators of blood development that can be used for generating hematopoietic stem cells. We have also generated new tools that may be useful to the larger stem cell community as well.