Year 2

We have made good progress in the second year. This project involves four separate scientific teams, brought together for the first time for this project, representing diverse backgrounds ranging from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics and cell tracking (Dr. Rutt), microbiology (Dr. Matin), nano and magnetic characterization (Dr. Moler) and imaging reporter development and testing in small animal models of disease (Dr. Contag). Substantial progress has been made by all four teams, and we are starting to see important interactions between the teams.

An overall summary of progress is that we have been evaluating three different bacterial genes (magA, mms6, mamB) in two mammalian cell lines (MDA-MB-231BR and DAOY). In year I we had shown significant iron accumulation in vitro with two of these genes, which was a very positive result implying that these genes may have the required characteristics to act as “reporter genes” for MRI-based tracking of cells labeled with these genes. In year 2, we diversified and intensified the efforts to achieve expression of one or more of the bacterial genes in different cell lines, using different genetic constructs. We began a concerted effort to achieve optical labeling such that we could visualize the gene expression and to identify sub-cellular localization of the report gene products.

We obtained promising results from MR imaging of mouse brain. In vivo imaging experiments were accomplished at medium MRI field strength (3 Tesla). At the same time, we ramped up our higher field, higher sensitivity MR imaging methods and began to evaluate the sensitivity gains enabled at the higher magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla (the highest magnetic field widely available for human MRI

Finally, methods to perform quantitative characterization of our reporter cells were developed, with the goal of being able to characterize magnetic properties down to the single cell level, and also to be able to assess iron loading levels down to the single level in brain tissue slices.