Our research group has identified in the human body a novel class of stem cells endowed with strong osteogenic potential, which means capacity to produce bone. These stem cells are attached to the outer aspect of blood vessels, and therefore present in all organs. Our ultimate goal is to use these stem cells in human beings, to perform for instance spine fusion, a procedure used to treat spine deformities (scoliosis) or faulty vertebrae, or to heal complicated bone fractures, especially in patients suffering from osteoporosis, a condition where spontaneous bone repair is compromised. We shall harvest stem cells from the patient’s own abdominal adipose (fat) tissue, a rich source of these cells which is also easy and safe to collect. Stem cells will be purified on an automated machine, named fluorescence activated cell sorter, and immobilized on an engineered biocompatible scaffold in the presence of a novel osteogenic growth factor, that is a sort of hormone which stimulates stem cell development into bone. We have won an Early Translational grant (2011-2014) from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine to develop this project to the stage where the first clinical trials can be engaged into. In the first year, we had fully validated the stem cell population of use on a large number of human adipose samples and clearly documented the availability, efficiency and safety of these cells independently of the age, sex and weight of the donor. We had also initiated experiments in mice and rats which have been pursued during the second year, finally demonstrating unequivocally the outstanding bone forming ability of these cells in the presence of the appropriate scaffold and osteogenic hormone. We have also, during this 2nd year, developed a large animal model of stem cell mediated bone regeneration which will be indispensable prior to the inception of human treatments. Finally, we have refined the physicochemical properties of the scaffold for optimal osteogenic factor availability and bone growth. In conclusion, all milestones and deadlines included in this grant have been met and our team is steadily progressing toward the medical “translation” of these novel stem cells.