The foundation of this project is built on the premise of cell therapies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a disease of failed and eventually aberrant wound repair. In its early phase, it is characterized by the formation and accumulation of debris in the back of the eye that can act as barriers to normal function and lead to activation of an immune response. While the nature of the insult that initiates this response is not fully understood, it may in part be due to cumulative wear and tear that results in oxidative or physical damage to eye. Whatever the origin, the response only serves to cause further damage and disease progression. Eventually, a tipping point is reached that triggers a switch that leads to the transition to the advanced forms of AMD characterized by cell death and and scaring. The aim of the second year is to understand this wound response and change using stem cell based models.