Year 2

During the reporting period, we have made significant progress toward the following research aims: (1) Using the reprogramming assay system established in year one, we continue to screen and identify small molecules that can replace reprogramming transcription factors to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human somatic cells. Recently, we achieved reprogramming of human keratinocytes and endothelial cells into iPS cells using a single transcription factor, Oct4, and a combination of small molecules. (2) Using standard assays, we have characterized those iPS cells to be pluripotent in vitro and in vivo.