The overall goals of our investigations are to better understand the links between stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and ultimately regeneration. Using the hair follicle and embryonic stem cells, the regulation of organ-specific and non-organ-specific stem cells can be studied. In the past year, we have published our working, characterizing a model of hair stem cell defects. This model has been the basis for our ongoing studies to identify mechanisms to mobilize refractory stem cells. In addition, we have identified different mechanisms for how stem cells potentially forecast growth by preparing proteins and RNAs that they require before they differentiate. Future work in this area is necessary to attempt to stimulate organ regeneration in tissues that are refractory for self-healing.