Year 1

During the past year, our laboratory has investigated the way that human skin cells can be changed to neurons. To do this, we have used a natural switch that occurs as embryonic cells decide to become neurons. We have found that this process proceeds in a highly ordered series of stages that involve first a resetting of fundamental cell biologic processes characteristic of neurons. This is followed by activation of genes encoding proteins that allow different types of neurons to interact and develop communication between one another. This finding surprised us since we expected to find changes in transcription factors, which instruct the formation of neurons. Instead, we find that the natural switching mechanism in neurons first regulates cell-to-cell communication.