ALS is a devastating disease for which there is no treatment or cure. Death of motor neurons in the spinal cord responsible for muscle function, results in complete paralysis and death usually within 2-4 years following diagnosis. This project will transplant stem cells secreting the powerful growth factor GDNF into the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease) do delay motor neuron death and thus treat the disease. In the first year we have (i) put together an outstanding team that have been able to begin the process of all pre clinical studies required to reach a new investigational drug (IND) filing within two years, (ii) generated a bank of research grade neural stem cells producing GDNF and developed manufacturing protocols at clinical grad level to produce the final lot of cells for the trial, (iii) performed complete dose ranging studies in a rat model of ALS to generate the first set of data showing safety and optimal doses for the cell product, (iv) optimized parameters to perform small and large animal safety studies required to take this work to the clinic and (v) assembled an outstanding team of clinicians and developed a world leading ALS clinic that is now preparing for patients to enter this trial. In the next year, we hope to complete the clinical grade lot of stem cells producing GDNF, to complete the remaining safety studies in rodent and pigs that will allow us to submit the IND application enabling a Phase 1/2a clinical study in 18 ALS patients from the state of California.