Our project was designed to develop new genetic approaches that could be introduced into stem cells to combat HIV (AIDS virus) infection. We have used this recent time to complete experiments demonstrating that cell surface molecules that direct cytotoxic T cells towards their HIV-infected targets, can be introduced into human blood-forming stem cells. These in turn direct the stem cells to develop into killer T cells that can attack HIV infected cells. We have tested this approach in a new in vivo model, and found it to be highly efficacious. The introduction of this genetic engineering approach allowed the animals to control HIV infection, and preserved the presence of CD4 T cells, which are normally killed by the virus.