Human Stem Cell Use: Embryonic Stem Cell

Assessing the role of Eph/ephrin signaling in hESC growth and differentiation

An important aspect of understanding stem cell biology is to have a basic understanding of the processes that balance stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation signals are at least partially regulated by direct contact between cells. For example, stem cells normally reside in a specific microenvironment, or “niche”, that integrates specific […]

Retinoic Acid-FGF Antagonism during Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human ES Cells

Retinoic acid is a metabolic derivative of vitamin A that has recently been shown to stimulate differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into motor neurons. However, almost nothing is known about how retinoic acid may perform this function. The recent discovery that retinoic acid antagonizes the action of fibroblast growth factor suggests a possible mechanism […]

Using human embryonic stem cells to treat radiation-induced stem cell loss: Benefits vs cancer risk

A variety of stem cells exist in humans throughout life and maintain their ability to divide and change into multiple cell types. Different types of adult derived stem cells occur throughout the body, and reside within specific tissues that serve as a reserve pool of cells that can replenish other cells lost due to aging, […]

In Vivo Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as one of the predominant modalities to evaluate the effects of stem cells in restoring the injured myocardium. However, MRI does not enable assessment of a fundamental issue in cell therapy, survival of the transplanted cells. The transplanted human embryonic cells (hESC) must at the very least survive to […]

MicroRNAs in Human Stem Cell Differentiation and Mental Disorders

Many mental disorders are closely associated with problems that occur during brain development in early life. For instance, by 2 years of age, autistic children have larger brains than normal kids, likely due to, at least in part, excess production of neurons and support cells, the building blocks of the nervous system. In autistic brains, […]

Force, Dimensionality and Stem Cell Fate

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are cells derived from human embryos early in development before their fate has been sealed. These cells grow and differentiate in response to a variety of stimuli to eventually give rise to all of the differentiated tissues in the body. By exploiting the remarkable potential of hESCs to differentiate into […]

Role of Chromatin Modifiers in Regulating Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency

The life of every human starts with a fertilized egg. This single cell starts to divide and, in a truly amazing process, gives rise to a developed human being. Although each cell of a developed organism is a progeny of this single zygote, and shares the same genetic information with every other cell, cells differentiate […]

Analysis of Candidate Neural Crest Cells Derived from Human ES Cells

Little is known about human Neurla Crest (NC) cells, a transient population of cells briefly present during very early human development; the reason why these cells are extremely difficult to obtain and study. In the model organism NC cells generate an amazing array of tissues, including peripheral and enteric nervous systems, cranial bones and cartilage, […]

Reprogramming Differentiated Human Cells to a Pluripotent State

If the therapeutic potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells is to be realized, the ability to produce pluripotent stem cells with defined genetic backgrounds is essential. Pluripotent cells, through differentiation, have the ability to become any cell type. For basic and applied research, access to human ES cells derived from patients with specific diseases […]

Screening for Oncogenic Epigenetic Alterations in Human ES Cells

Embryonic stem cell-based therapies hold great promise for the treatment of many human diseases. These therapeutic strategies involve the culture and manipulation of embryonic stem cells grown outside the human body. Culture conditions outside the human body can encourage the development of changes to the cells that facilitate rapid and sustained cell growth. Some of […]