Whole transcriptome sequencing enables discovery and analysis of viruses in archived primary central nervous system lymphomas.

Journal: 
PLoS One
Publication Year: 
2013
Authors: 
Christopher Deboever
Erin G Reid
Erin N Smith
Xiaoyun Wang
Wilmar Dumaop
Olivier Harismendy
Dennis Carson
Douglas Richman
Eliezer Masliah
Kelly A Frazer
PubMed link: 
24023918
Public Summary: 
Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have a dramatically increased prevalence among persons living with AIDS and are known to be associated with human Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous work suggests that in some cases, co-infection with other viruses may be important for PCNSL pathogenesis. Viral transcription in tumor samples can be measured using next generation transcriptome sequencing. We demonstrate the ability of transcriptome sequencing to identify viruses, characterize viral expression, and identify viral variants by sequencing four archived AIDS-related PCNSL tissue samples and analyzing raw sequencing reads. EBV was detected in all four PCNSL samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), and HIV were also discovered, consistent with clinical diagnoses. CMV was found to express three long non-coding RNAs recently reported as expressed during active infection. Single nucleotide variants were observed in each of the viruses observed and three indels were found in CMV. No viruses were found in several control tumor types including 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. This study demonstrates the ability of next generation transcriptome sequencing to accurately identify viruses, including DNA viruses, in solid human cancer tissue samples.
Scientific Abstract: 
Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have a dramatically increased prevalence among persons living with AIDS and are known to be associated with human Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous work suggests that in some cases, co-infection with other viruses may be important for PCNSL pathogenesis. Viral transcription in tumor samples can be measured using next generation transcriptome sequencing. We demonstrate the ability of transcriptome sequencing to identify viruses, characterize viral expression, and identify viral variants by sequencing four archived AIDS-related PCNSL tissue samples and analyzing raw sequencing reads. EBV was detected in all four PCNSL samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), and HIV were also discovered, consistent with clinical diagnoses. CMV was found to express three long non-coding RNAs recently reported as expressed during active infection. Single nucleotide variants were observed in each of the viruses observed and three indels were found in CMV. No viruses were found in several control tumor types including 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. This study demonstrates the ability of next generation transcriptome sequencing to accurately identify viruses, including DNA viruses, in solid human cancer tissue samples.