Neurological Disorders

Coding Dimension ID: 
303
Coding Dimension path name: 
Neurological Disorders
Funding Type: 
Early Translational IV
Grant Number: 
TR4-06788
Investigator: 
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$2 124 000
Disease Focus: 
Stroke
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Embryonic Stem Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
The goal of this project is to produce a stem cell-based therapy for stroke (also known as an ischemic cerebral infarct). Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA, and a leading cause of disability among adults. Currently, there are no effective treatments once a stroke has occurred (termed completed stroke). In this proposal, we aim to develop human stem cells for therapeutic transplantation to treat stroke. Potential benefits will outweigh risks because only patients with severe strokes that have compromised activities of daily living to an extreme degree will initially be treated. Using a novel approach, we will generate stem cells that do not form tumors, but instead only make new nerve cells. We will give drugs to avoid rejection of the transplanted cells. Thus, the treatment should be safe. We will first test the cells in stroke models in rodents (mice and rats) in preparation for a human clinical trial. We will collect comprehensive data on the mice and rats to determine if the stem cells indeed become new nerve cells to replace the damaged tissue and to assess if the behavior of the mice and rats has improved. If successfully developed and commercialized, this approach has the potential for revolutionizing stroke therapy.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
The goal of this project is to produce a stem cell-based therapy for stroke (also known as an ischemic cerebral infarct). Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the State of California, and a leading cause of disability among adults. Currently, there are no effective treatments once a stroke has occurred (termed completed stroke), and the quality of life is severely compromised in those that survive the malady. In this proposal, we aim to develop human stem cells for therapeutic transplantation to treat stroke. Using a novel approach, we will generate stem cells that do not form tumors, but instead only make new nerve cells. If successfully developed and commercialized, this approach could provide a therapeutic candidate for the unmet medical need, which would have a tremendous impact on the quality of life for the patient, his or her family, and for the economic and emotional burden on the State of California and its citizens.
Progress Report: 
  • Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA and remains a great medical problem in California. Currently, there is no effective treatment for patients with a stroke who are seen several hours after the event. The goal of this project is to establish the feasibility of using a stem cell line for cell-replacement therapy to target stroke (cerebral ischemia). Using a novel, genetic pre-programming approach, we will generate human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSC/NPCs) that are resistant to apoptotic cell death and destined to become nerve cells (or neurons). Our approach also avoids tumor formation, which can occur if stem cells that are not programmed to become neurons are injected into the brain. We will achieve our goals by introducing a constitutively active form of the transcription factor MEF2C (MEF2CA) into human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived hNPCs. For this purpose it is critical to identify a viral vector system that is the safest and most effective in producing MEF2CA-programmed hNPCs. We decided to use an adenoviral-associated virus (AAV) vector system because unlike other viral delivery methods (e.g., lentiviral, retroviral), an AAV system allows us to achieve MEF2CA expression in an integration-free and transient manner, as required for proper neuronal differentiation from NPCs. After in vitro characterization of these cells, including their neurogenic capacity, scalability etc., we will transplant them into rodent models of focal stroke. We are analyzing transplanted rats with immunohistochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral methods to determine whether MEF2CA-programmed hNPCs can successfully differentiate into functional, integrated neurons into the host brain and ameliorate stroke-induced behavioral deficits. To assess the robustness of the AAV approach, we will also compare the results obtained from this system to those obtained using a hESC line that is stably programmed (resulting in permanent insertion of the MEF2C transgene into the genome of the cell, as opposed to transient MEF2C expression achieved with the AAV system). These studies will allow us to determine the effectiveness of the integration-free AAV system vs. stable integration of MEF2C on hNPCs developed for cell replacement therapy. During the current reporting period (Year 01), we have efficiently produced an AAV vector that transduces the MEF2CA transgene into hESC-derived NPCs. FACS analysis revealed that we have robustly infected the hNPCs with this AAV-based construct (~95% of cells infected). In vitro evaluation for protein and mRNA (through immunocytochemistry, and qRT-PCR assays) from the cells infected with AAV-MEF2CA revealed their neural progenitor cell identity and that the MEF2CA transgene is active in these cells. We have begun to transplant these cells into the brain of the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat model of focal stroke. We have begun to compare the effects in stroke of the AAV-MEF2CA and stable-MEF2CA cell lines. In vitro characterization of the stable MEF2CA stem cell line demonstrated that we can differentiate these hNPCs into neurons. For example, protein, mRNA, and morphological analyses revealed robust differentiation of these hNPCs into mature cerebrocortical neurons. Electrophysiological analysis further confirmed the expression of functional neuronal channels and synaptic currents. Behavioral evaluation performed 12-weeks after transplant into the stroked brain with the stable-MEF2CA hNPC line vs. control revealed promising behavioral improvements in the MEF2CA-NPC transplanted group compared to control without apparent side effects.
Funding Type: 
hPSC Repository
Grant Number: 
IR1-06600
Investigator: 
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$9 999 834
Disease Focus: 
Developmental Disorders
Heart Disease
Infectious Disease
Alzheimer's Disease
Neurological Disorders
Autism
Respiratory Disorders
Vision Loss
Stem Cell Use: 
iPS Cell
Cell Line Generation: 
iPS Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Critical to the long term success of the CIRM iPSC Initiative of generating and ensuring the availability of high quality disease-specific human IPSC lines is the establishment and successful operation of a biorepository with proven methods for quality control, safe storage and capabilities for worldwide distribution of high quality, highly-characterized iPSCs. Specifically the biorepository will be responsible for receipt, expansion, quality characterization, safe storage and distribution of human pluripotent stem cells generated by the CIRM stem cell initiative. This biobanking resource will ensure the availability of the highest quality hiPSC resources for researchers to use in disease modeling, target discovery and drug discovery and development for prevalent, genetically complex diseases.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients and subsequently, the ability to differentiate these iPSCs into disease-relevant cell types holds great promise in facilitating the “disease-in-a-dish” approach for studying our understanding of the pathological mechanisms of human disease. iPSCs have already proven to be a useful model for several monogenic diseases such as Parkinson’s, Fragile X Syndrome, Schizophrenia, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, and inherited metabolic diseases such as 1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial hypercholesterolemia, and glycogen storage disease. In addition, the differentiated cells obtained from iPSCs represent a renewable, disease-relevant cell model for high-throughput drug screening and toxicology/safety assessment which will ultimately lead to the successful development of new therapeutic agents. iPSCs also hold great hope for advancing the use of live cells as therapies for correcting the physiological manifestations caused by disease or injury.
Progress Report: 
  • The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Biorepository is operated by the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and is a critical component of the CIRM Human Stem Cell Initiative. The overall goal of this initiative is to generate, for world-wide use by non-profit and for-profit entities, high quality, disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These cells are derived from existing tissues such as blood or skin, and are genetically manipulated in the laboratory to change into cells that resemble embryonic stem cells. iPSCs can be grown indefinitely in the Petri dish and have the remarkable capability to be converted into most of the major cell types in the body including neurons, heart cells, and liver cells. This ability makes iPSCs an exceptional resource for disease modeling as well as for drug screening. The expectation is that these cells will be a major benefit to the process for understanding prevalent, genetically complex diseases and in developing innovative therapeutics.
  • The Coriell CIRM iPSC Biorepository, located at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA, is funded through a competitive grant award to Coriell from CIRM and is managed by Mr. Matt Self under the supervision of the Program Director, Dr. Steven Madore, Director of Molecular Biology at Coriell. The Biorepository will receive biospecimens consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and skin biopsies obtained from donors recruited by seven Tissue Collector grant awardees. These biospecimens will serve as the starting material for iPSC derivation by Cellular Dynamics, Inc (CDI). Under a contractual agreement with Coriell, CDI will expand each iPSC line to generate sufficient aliquots of high quality cryopreserved cells for distribution via the Coriell on-line catalogue. Aliquots of frozen cell lines and iPSCs will be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor in storage units at the Buck Institute with back-up aliquots stored in a safe off-site location.
  • Renovation and construction of the Biorepository began at the Buck Institute in late January. The Biorepository Manger was hired March 1 and after installation of cryogenic storage vessels and alarm validation, the first biospecimens were received on April 30, 2014. Additionally, Coriell has developed a Clinical Information Management System (CIMS) for storing all clinical and demographic data associated with enrolled subjects. Tissue Collectors utilize CIMS via a web interface to upload and edit the subject demographic and clinical information that will ultimately be made available, along with the iPSCs, via Coriell’s on-line catalogue
  • As of November 1 specimens representing a total of 725 unique individuals have been received at the Biorepository. These samples include PBMCs obtained from 550 unique individuals, skin biopsies from 72 unique individuals, and 103 primary dermal fibroblast cultures previously prepared in the laboratories of the CIRM Tissue Collectors. A total of 280 biospecimen samples have been delivered to CDI for the purpose of iPSC derivation. The Biorepository is anticipating delivery of the first batches of iPSCs for distribution in early 2015. These lines, along with the associated clinical data, will become available to scientists via the on-line Coriell catalogue. The CIRM Coriell iPSC Biorepository will ensure safe long-term storage and distribution of high quality iPSCs.
Funding Type: 
Early Translational III
Grant Number: 
TR3-05617
Investigator: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$4 327 175
Disease Focus: 
Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Adult Stem Cell
Cell Line Generation: 
Adult Stem Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the myelin sheath that insulates neurons is destroyed, resulting in loss of proper neuronal function. Existing treatments for MS are based on strategies that suppress the immune response. While these drugs do provide benefit by reducing relapses and delaying progression (but have significant side effects), the disease invariably progresses. We are pursuing an alternative therapy aimed at regeneration of the myelin sheath through drugs that act on an endogenous stem cell population in the central nervous system termed oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Remission in MS is largely dependent upon OPCs migrating to sites of injury and subsequently differentiating into oligodendrocytes – the cells that synthesize myelin and are capable of neuronal repair. Previous studies indicate that in progressive MS, OPCs are abundantly present at sites of damage but fail to differentiate to oligodendrocytes. As such, drug-like molecules capable of inducing OPC differentiation should have significant potential, used alone or in combination with existing immunomodulatory agents, for the treatment of MS. The objective of this project is to identify a development candidate (DC) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) that functions by directly stimulating the differentiation of the adult stem cells required for remyelination.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a painful, neurodegenerative disease that leads to an impairment of physical and cognitive abilities. Patients with MS are often forced to stop working because their condition becomes so limiting. MS can interfere with a patient's ability to even perform simple routine daily activities, resulting in a decreased quality of life. Existing treatments for MS delay disease progression and minimize symptoms, however, the disease invariably progresses to a state of chronic demyelination. The goal of this project is to identify novel promyelinating drugs, based on differentiation of an endogenous stem cell population. Such drugs would be used in combination with existing immunosuppressive drugs to prevent disease progression and restore proper neuronal activity. More effective MS treatment strategies represent a major unmet medical need that could impact the roughly 50,000 Californians suffering from this disease. Clearly the development of a promyelinating therapeutic would have a significant impact on the well-being of Californians and reduce the negative economic impact on the state resulting from this degenerative disease.
Progress Report: 
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath that insulates neurons, resulting in loss of proper neuronal function. Existing treatments for MS are based exclusively on strategies that suppress the immune response. We are pursuing an alternative stem cell-based therapeutic approach aimed at enhancing regeneration of the myelin sheath. Specifically, we are focused on the identification of drug-like molecules capable of inducing oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation. To date, we have identified a series approved drugs that effectively induce OPC differentiation under tissue culture conditions. Additionally, we have demonstrated that several of these drug candidates reduce MS-like symptoms in relevant rodent models of the disease. We are currently conducting detailed pharmacology experiments to determine which of the identified molecules will serve as the best candidate for future clinical development.
  • The aim of this project is to identify and characterize molecules that induce the repair of lesions in multiple sclerosis. Molecules that induce the selective differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells to oligodendrocytes and thereby lead to remyelination of axons are being characterized with respect to their in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy in relevant animal models, alone and in combination with immunosuppressive drugs. This work may lead to a new regenerative therapy for multiple sclerosis that is complementary to the current immune-focused therapies.
Funding Type: 
Basic Biology III
Grant Number: 
RB3-02161
Investigator: 
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$1 268 868
Disease Focus: 
Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Neurological Disorders
Pediatrics
Stem Cell Use: 
iPS Cell
Cell Line Generation: 
iPS Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders that cause infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, resulting in motor neuron (MN) degeneration in the spinal cord. Although SMN protein plays diverse roles in RNA metabolism and is expressed in all cells, it is unclear why a deficiency in SMN only causes MN degeneration. Since patient samples are rarely available, most knowledge in SMA is gained from animal model studies. While these studies have provided important information concerning the cause and mechanism of SMA, they are limited by complicated genetic manipulation. Results from different models are also not always consistent. These problems can be resolved if SMA patient’s MNs become readily available. Recent progress in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from differentiated adult cells provides an opportunity to establish human cell-based models for neurodegenerative diseases. These cells, due to their self-renewal property, can provide an unlimited supply of the affected cell type for disease study in vitro. In this regard, SMA iPS cells may represent an ideal candidate for disease modeling as SMA is an early onset monogenic disease: the likelihood to generate disease-specific phenotypes is therefore higher than iPS cells derived from a late onset disease. In addition, the affected cell type, namely MNs, can readily be generated from iPS cells for the study. For these reasons, we established several SMA iPS cell lines from a type 1 patient and showed specific deficits in MNs derived from these iPS cells. Whether MNs derived from these iPS cell lines can recapitulate a whole spectrum of SMA pathology in animals and patients remains unclear. An answer to this question can ensure the suitability of using the iPS cell approach to study SMA pathogenesis in cell culture. We propose to examine cellular and functional deficits in MNs derived from these SMA iPS cells in Aim 1. The availability of these iPS cells also provides an opportunity to explore the mechanisms of selective MN degeneration in SMA. Dysregulation of some cellular genes has been implicated in SMA pathogenesis. We propose to use these iPS cell lines to address how one such gene is affected by SMN deficiency (Aim 2) and how a deficit in these genes leads to selective MN degeneration (Aim 3). Our study should provide valuable insights in the understanding of SMA pathogenesis and aid in exploring new molecular targets for drug intervention.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in humans and the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, resulting in motor neuron (MN) degeneration in the spinal cord. SMA has a carrier frequency of approximately 1 in 35 and an incidence of 1 in 6000 in human population. In severe SMA cases, the disease onset initiates before 6 months of age and death within the first 2 years of life. Currently, there is no cure for SMA. Since MN samples from patients are rarely available, most knowledge in SMA is gained from animal model studies. While these studies have provided important information concerning the cause and mechanism of SMA, they are limited by complicated genetic manipulation. Results from different models are not always consistent either. Large-scale drug screening to treat SMA is also hampered by the lack of suitable cell lines for the study. These problems can potentially be resolved if SMA patient’s MNs become readily available. Our effort to derive induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from a SMA patient provides an unlimited supply of SMA cells to carry out studies to explore the disease mechanism in vitro. A better understanding in the disease mechanisms would benefit California by the identification of potential cellular targets for drug treatment. The knowledge gained from our study can also facilitate the use of these iPS cells as a platform for large-scale drug screening and validation. Our study should provide valuable insights in the understanding of SMA pathogenesis and aid in exploring new molecular targets for drug intervention.
Progress Report: 
  • During the past fiscal year, we have established in vitro coculture between motoneurons and myocytes. This coculture system will form the basis for the analysis of potential SMA pathogenesis induced by the motoneurons derived from SMA iPS cells. We have also started the analysis of potential cellular targets whose activity is affected by SMN deficiency.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders that cause infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, resulting in motor neuron (MN) degeneration in the spinal cord. Although SMN protein plays diverse roles in RNA metabolism and is expressed in all cells, it is unclear why a deficiency in SMN only causes MN degeneration. Since patient samples are rarely available, most knowledge in SMA is gained from animal model studies. While these studies have provided important insights of the cause and mechanism of SMA, they are limited by complicated genetic manipulation. Results from different models are also not always consistent. These problems can be addressed using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patient’s fibroblasts. These cells, due to their self-renewal capacity and their ability to differentiate into neuronal cells, can in theory provide an unlimited supply of the affected MNs for SMA study. We propose to examine cellular and functional deficits in MNs derived from these SMA iPS cells in Aim 1. To increase the yield of MN production, we have tested new strategies to differentiate SMA iPSCs into MNs. The improvement makes it feasible to isolate more pure populations of MNs for the study of SMA pathogenesis in vitro. The availability of these iPSC lines also provides an opportunity to explore the mechanisms of selective MN degeneration in SMA. Dysregulation of some cellular genes has been implicated in SMA pathogenesis. We continue to study the role of one particular cellular gene whose expression is reduced in SMA (Aim 2). We are taking approaches to reveal how SMN deficiency causes this change in gene expression. We are also taking a genomic approach to reveal all the affected genes and the signaling pathways in SMA MNs and understand how a deficit in these genes leads to selective MN degeneration (Aim 3). Our study should provide valuable insights in the understanding of SMA pathogenesis and aid in exploring new molecular targets for drug intervention.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common genetic disorders that cause infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, resulting in motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord. Although SMN protein plays diverse roles in cells and is expressed in all cells, it is unclear why a deficiency in SMN only causes motoneuron degeneration. Since patient samples are rarely available, most knowledge in SMA is gained from animal model studies. While these studies have provided important information concerning the cause and mechanism of SMA, they are limited by complicated genetic manipulation. Results from different models are also not always consistent. These problems can be resolved if SMA patient’s motoneurons become readily available. The progress in the generation of stem cell lines from differentiated adult cells, termed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provides an opportunity to establish human cell-based models for neurodegenerative diseases like SMA. We have previously established several SMA iPSC lines from a type 1 patient and showed specific deficits in motoneurons derived from these iPSCs. The availability of these iPSCs provides an opportunity to explore the mechanisms of selective motoneuron degeneration in SMA. We used motoneurons derived from SMA iPSCs to study potential defects in the formation of neuromuscular junctions. We also demonstrated a regulatory gene product affected by SMN deficiency. Several potential downstream targets of the regulatory gene product involved in neuron migration and synaptic transmission were identified. The roles of these genes in selective motoneuron degeneration observed in SMA are currently under study. One technical obstacle of using iPSC-derived motoneurons to study SMA in a dish is that motoneurons generally constitute only a fraction of the resulting cell population. The lack of capacity to isolate motoneurons hampers our study of SMA pathogenesis and the identification of potential downstream targets of SMN. We have employed a new approach, termed gene editing, to mark differentiated motoneurons with a fluorescence protein to facilitate their isolation by cell sorting. A proof-of-principle experiment was carried out and demonstrated the feasibility of this strategy. We are currently applying this strategy to mark motoneurons derived from SMA iPSCs.
Funding Type: 
Tools and Technologies II
Grant Number: 
RT2-02018
Investigator: 
Name: 
Institution: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$1 930 608
Disease Focus: 
Stroke
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Adult Stem Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Clinical application of cell transplantation therapy requires a means of non-invasively monitoring these cells in the patient. Several imaging modalities, including MRI, bioluminescence imaging, and positron emission tomography have been used to track stem cells in vivo. For MR imaging, cells are pre-loaded with molecules or particles that substantially alter the image brightness; the most common such labelling strategy employs iron oxide particles. Several studies have shown the ability of MRI to longitudinally track transplanted iron-labeled cells in different animal models, including stroke and cancer. But there are drawbacks to this kind of labeling. Division of cells will result in the dilution of particles and loss of signal. False signal can be detected from dying cells or if the cells of interest are ingested by other cells. To overcome these roadblocks in the drive toward clinical implementation of stem cell tracking, it is now believed that a genetic labeling approach will be necessary, whereby specific protein expression causes the formation of suitable contrast agents. Such endogenous and persistent generation of cellular contrast would be particularly valuable to the field of stem cell therapy, where the homing ability of transplanted stem cells, long-term viability, and capacity for differentiation are all known to strongly influence therapeutic outcomes. However, genetic labeling or "gene reporter" strategies that permit sensitive detection of rare cells, non-invasively and deep in tissue, have not yet been developed. This is therefore the translational bottleneck that we propose to address in this grant, through the development and validation of a novel high-sensitivity MRI gene reporter technology. There have been recent reports of gene-mediated cellular production of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles of the same composition as the synthetic iron oxide particles used widely in exogenous labeling studies. It is an extension of this strategy, combined with our own strengths in developing high-sensitivity MRI technology, that we propose to apply to the task of single cell tracking of metastatic cancer cells and neural stem cells. If we are successful with the proposed studies, we will have substantially advanced the field of in vivo cellular imaging, by providing a stable cell tracking technology that could be used to study events occurring at arbitrary depth in tissue (unlike optical methods) and over unlimited time duration and arbitrary number of cell divisions (unlike conventional cellular MRI). With the ability to track not only the fate (migration, homing and proliferation) but also the viability and function of very small numbers of stem cells will come new knowledge of the behavior of these cells in a far more relevant micro-environment compared with current in vitro models, and yet with far better visualization and cell detection sensitivity compared with other in vivo imaging methods.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Stem cell therapy has enormous promise to become a viable therapy for a range of illnesses, including stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Progress in the development of these therapies depends on the ability to monitor cell delivery, migration and therapeutic action at the disease site, using imaging and other non-invasive technologies. If breakthroughs could be made along these lines, it would not only be of enormous benefit to the citizens of the state of California, but would also greatly reduce healthcare costs. From a broader research perspective, the state of California is the front-runner in stem cell research, having gathered not only private investments, as demonstrated by the numerous biotechnology companies that are developing innovative tools, but also extensive public funds that allows the state, through CIRM, to sponsor stem cell research in public and private institutions. In order to preserve the leadership position and encourage research on stem cells, CIRM is calling for research proposals to develop innovative tools and technologies that will overcome current roadblocks in translational stem cell research. This proposal will benefit the state by providing important new technology that will be valuable for both basic and translational stem cell research. A key bottleneck to the further development and translation of new stem cell therapies is the inability to track stem cells through a human body. It is possible to image stem cells using embedded optical fluorescence labels, but optical imaging does not permit tracking of cells deep in tissue. Other imaging modalities and their associated cellular labels (for example positron emission tomography) have also been used to track cells but do not have the sensitivity to detect rare or single cells. Finally, MRI has been used to track cells deep in tissue, down to the single cell level, but only by pre-loading cells with a non-renewable supply of iron oxide nanoparticles, which prevents long-term tracking and assessment of cell viability and function. We propose here to develop MRI technology and a new form of genetically-encoded, long-term cell labeling technology, to a much more advanced state than available at present. This will make it possible to use MRI to detect and follow cancer and stem cells as they migrate to and proliferate at the site of interest, even starting from the single cell stage. This will provide a technology that will help stem cell researchers, first and foremost in California, to understand stem cell behavior in a realistic in vivo environment. This technology will be translatable to future human stem cell research studies.
Progress Report: 
  • We have made good progress in the first year. This project involves four separate scientific teams, brought together for the first time, representing diverse backgrounds ranging from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics and cell tracking (Dr. Rutt), microbiology (Dr. Matin), nano and magnetic characterization (Dr. Moler) and stem cell imaging in stroke models (Dr. Guzman). Substantial progress has been made by all four teams, and we are starting to see important interactions between the teams. An overall summary of progress is that we have evaluated three different bacterial genes (magA, mms6, mamB) in one mammalian cell line (MDA-MB-231BR) and have shown significant iron accumulation in vitro with two of these genes, which is a very positive result implying that these genes may have the required characteristics to act as "reporter genes" for MRI-based tracking of cells labeled with these genes. MR imaging of mouse brain specimens has yielded promising results and in vivo imaging experiments are underway at medium MRI field strength (3 Tesla). At the same time, we are ramping up our higher field, higher sensitivity MR imaging methods and will be ready to evaluate the different variations of our MR reporter gene at 7 Tesla (the highest magnetic field widely available for human MRI) in the near future. Finally, methods to perform quantitative characterization of our reporter cells are being developed, with the goal of being able to characterize magnetic properties down to the single cell level, and also to be able to assess iron loading levels down to the single level in brain tissue slices.
  • We have made good progress in the second year. This project involves four separate scientific teams, brought together for the first time for this project, representing diverse backgrounds ranging from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics and cell tracking (Dr. Rutt), microbiology (Dr. Matin), nano and magnetic characterization (Dr. Moler) and imaging reporter development and testing in small animal models of disease (Dr. Contag). Substantial progress has been made by all four teams, and we are starting to see important interactions between the teams.
  • An overall summary of progress is that we have been evaluating three different bacterial genes (magA, mms6, mamB) in two mammalian cell lines (MDA-MB-231BR and DAOY). In year I we had shown significant iron accumulation in vitro with two of these genes, which was a very positive result implying that these genes may have the required characteristics to act as "reporter genes" for MRI-based tracking of cells labeled with these genes. In year 2, we diversified and intensified the efforts to achieve expression of one or more of the bacterial genes in different cell lines, using different genetic constructs. We began a concerted effort to achieve optical labeling such that we could visualize the gene expression and to identify sub-cellular localization of the report gene products.
  • We obtained promising results from MR imaging of mouse brain. In vivo imaging experiments were accomplished at medium MRI field strength (3 Tesla). At the same time, we ramped up our higher field, higher sensitivity MR imaging methods and began to evaluate the sensitivity gains enabled at the higher magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla (the highest magnetic field widely available for human MRI
  • Finally, methods to perform quantitative characterization of our reporter cells were developed, with the goal of being able to characterize magnetic properties down to the single cell level, and also to be able to assess iron loading levels down to the single level in brain tissue slices.
  • We have made good progress in the third year. This project involves four separate scientific teams, brought together for the first time for this project, representing diverse backgrounds ranging from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics and cell tracking (Dr. Rutt), microbiology (Dr. Matin), nano and magnetic characterization (Dr. Moler) and imaging reporter development and testing in small animal models of disease (Dr. Contag). Substantial progress has been made by all four teams, and we have benefited from important interactions between all teams in this third year.
  • An overall summary of progress is that we evaluated several iron-binding bacterial genes (magA, mamB, mms6, mms13), both singly and doubly, in two mammalian cell lines (MDA-MB-231BR and DAOY). In year 2, we diversified and intensified the efforts to achieve expression of one or more of the bacterial genes in different cell lines, using different genetic constructs. We completed an effort to achieve optical labeling such that we could visualize the gene expression and to identify sub-cellular localization of the report gene products. In year 3, while continuing to face challenges with single gene constructs, we succeeded in finding substantial iron uptake in cells containing unique double gene expression, notably magA and mms13.
  • We completed much of the development of our higher field, higher sensitivity MR imaging methods and evaluated the sensitivity gains enabled at the higher magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla (the highest magnetic field widely available for human MRI).
  • Finally, we demonstrated novel nanomagnetic methods to characterize our reporter cells, able to characterize magnetic properties down to the single cell level.
  • We have made good progress during this 6-month extension period. This project involves four separate scientific teams, brought together for the first time for this project, representing diverse backgrounds ranging from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics and cell tracking (Dr. Rutt), microbiology (Dr. Matin), nano and magnetic characterization (Dr. Moler) and imaging reporter development and testing in small animal models of disease (Dr. Contag). Substantial progress has been made by all four teams, and we have benefited from important interactions between all teams in this third year.
  • An overall summary of progress is that we evaluated several iron-binding bacterial genes (magA, mamB, mms6, mms13), singly, doubly and triply, in several mammalian cell lines (MDA-MB-231BR, DAOY, COS1, 293FT). In year 3 as well as through the extension period, we succeeded in finding substantial iron uptake in cells containing certain expressed genes, notably mms13 by itself, as well as combinations of mms13 with mms6 and mamB.
  • We completed the development of our higher field, higher sensitivity MR imaging methods and evaluated the sensitivity gains enabled at the higher magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla (the highest magnetic field widely available for human MRI).
  • Finally, we demonstrated novel nanomagnetic methods to characterize our reporter cells, able to characterize magnetic properties down to the single cell level.
Funding Type: 
Early Translational II
Grant Number: 
TR2-01785
Investigator: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$1 614 441
Disease Focus: 
Spinal Cord Injury
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Embryonic Stem Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Injuries to the spinal cord commonly result from motor vehicle accidents, traumatic falls, diving, surfing, skiing, and snowboarding accidents, other forms of sports injuries, as well as from gunshot injuries in victims of violent crimes. Injuries to the anatomically lowest part of the spinal cord, the lumbosacral portion and its associated nerve roots commonly cause paralysis, loss of sensation, severe pain, as well as loss of bladder, bowel, and sexual function. Lumbosacral injuries represent approximately one-fifth of all traumatic lesions to the human spinal cord. As a result of the direct injury to the lumbosacral portion of the spinal cord, there is degeneration and death of spinal cord nerve cells, which control muscles in the legs as well as bladder, bowel, and sexual function. No treatments are presently available in clinical practice to reverse the effects of these devastating injuries. In order to reverse the loss of function after lumbosacral spinal cord injury, replacement of the lost nerve cells is required. Recent research studies have identified some properties that are shared by spinal cord neurons responsible for muscle and bladder control. Human embryonic stem cells can now be prepared in research laboratories to develop properties that are shared between nerve cells controlling muscle and bladder function. Such nerve cells are particularly at risk of degeneration and death as a result of injuries to the lumbosacral spinal cord. Human embryonic stem cells, which have undergone treatment to obtain properties of muscle and bladder controlling nerve cells, are now very attractive development candidates for new cell replacement therapies after lumbosacral spinal cord injuries. The proposed feasibility studies will study the properties of such cells in a clinically relevant rat model for lumbosacral spinal cord injuries. In Specific Aim 1, we will determine whether ACUTE transplantation of human embryonic stem cells, which have been treated to develop properties of specific lumbosacral spinal cord neurons, may replace lost nerve cells and result in a return of bladder function in a rat model of lumbosacral spinal cord injury and repair. In Specific Aim 2, we will determine whether DELAYED transplantation of human embryonic stem cells, which have been treated to develop properties of specific lumbosacral spinal cord neurons, may replace lost nerve cells and result in a return of bladder function in a rat model of lumbosacral spinal cord injury and repair. A variety of functional studies will determine the effect of the cell transplantation on bladder function, walking, and pain. We will also use detailed anatomical studies to determine in microscopes whether the transplanted cells have grown processes to connect with pelvic target tissues, including the lower urinary tract. If successful, the proposed experiments may lead to a new treatment strategy for patients with lumbosacral spinal cord injuries.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
There are presently about 250,000 patients living with neurological impairments from spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in the United States, and approximately 11,000 new cases present every year. SCIs typically result in paralysis, loss of sensation, pain as well as bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. No successful treatments are available to reverse the neurological deficits that result from SCI. Common causes for SCIs include car and motorcycle accidents, skiing, diving, surfing, and snow boarding injuries, traumatic falls, sports injuries, and acts of violence. California medical centers encounter a large proportion of the overall cases in the U.S. because of our large population, extensive network of freeways, and an active life style with recreational activities taking place both along the Californian coastline and in the mountains. The proposed development candidate feasibility project will capitalize on recent progress in human stem cell science and surgical repair of conus medullaris/cauda equina (CM/CE) forms of SCI. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons and neuronal progenitors, which express the transcription factor Hb9, will be transplanted into the conus medullaris in attempts to replace lost motor and autonomic neurons after a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury in rats. Surgical replantation of avulsed lumbosacral ventral roots into the spinal cord will also be performed in this clinically relevant model for CM/CE injury and repair. If successful, our development candidate may reinnervate muscles and pelvic organs, including the lower urinary tract after CM/CE forms of SCI. Return of functional bladder control represents one of the absolute top priorities among the spinal cord injured population (Anderson, J Neurotrauma, 2004; 21, 1371-83). Successful recovery of bladder function after SCI is expected to have very significant impact on the quality of life of spinal cord injured subjects and markedly reduce health care costs. Recovery of bladder function in spinal cord injured subjects would markedly reduce or eliminate the need for intermittent bladder catheterizations and indwelling bladder catheters. The number of visits in physicians’ offices and already over-crowded California emergency rooms for bladder infections and other complications would be markedly reduced, thereby significantly reducing health care costs for both patients and our state. Improved neurological function among the SCI population is also expected to reduce care giver needs, thereby further reducing health care costs. The increased independence that will result from improved bladder control and concomitant possible recovery of other neurological functions, for instance in transfers and locomotion, will promote return to and participation in the work force for many individuals with SCI. These effects are also expected to bring a very positive effect to the California economy and increased quality of life for those living with an SCI.
Progress Report: 
  • Injuries to the lowest portion of the spine and the spinal cord commonly results in paralysis and impairment of bladder , bowel, and sexual functions. These injuries are usually referred to as conus medullaris and cauda equina forms of spinal cord injuries. Presently, no treatments are available to reverse the neurological deficits that result from these injuries.
  • In this project, we aim to reverse neurological deficits, including bladder function, in a rat model of spinal cord injury, which affects the lowermost portion of the spinal cord. This part of the spinal cord and the associated nerve roots are called the conus medullaris and cauda equina. In our experimental model, nerve roots carrying fibers that control muscle function and pelvic organs, such as the bladder and bowel, are injured at the surface of the spinal cord. This injury mimics many of the neurological deficits encountered in human cases.
  • For treatment purposes, we transplant human derived embryonic stem cells, which have been prepared to acquire properties of motor neurons, into the lowermost portion of the rat spinal cord after injury and surgical repair of nerve roots carrying motor fibers. The studies will evaluate both acute and delayed transplantation of human embryonoic
  • During the first year of the studies, we have developed improved protocols to increase our ability to produce large number of motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells. We have also developed improved methods to detect motor neurons during the neuron production process by using fluorescent reporters inside of the cells. The latter development is of great help when sorting and preparing cells with desired properties for transplantation studies. In addition, we have refined our surgical methods to make it less invasive, using a one-sided injury model instead of lesions on both sides of the spinal cord in rats. Specifically, bladder dysfunction can be assess after a one sided injury of nerve roots and be evaluated using a combination of bladder pressure recorings and electrical recordings referred to as electromyography (EMG) from muscles along the urethra. The revised procedure is well tolerated by the rats and is a suitable approach for studies of chronic injury and cell-based long-term treatments. A research manuscript describing this improved experimental method and refinement has been submitted to a scientific journal and reviewed, and the manuscript is currently undergoing our revisions before being considered for publication. The experimental refinement will greatly assist with our long-term studies on the effects of transplanted motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells. We have also begun experiments using our refined model and cells, which now can be produced in high numbers and be identifiable during both the cell culture steps and during the animal studies. Initial tissues have been harvested and are being processed for morphological analyses.
  • Injuries to the lowest portion of the spine and the spinal cord commonly results in paralysis and impairment of bladder , bowel, and sexual functions. These injuries are usually referred to as conus medullaris and cauda equina forms of spinal cord injuries. Presently, no treatments are available to reverse the neurological deficits that result from these injuries.
  • In this project, we aim to reverse neurological deficits, including bladder function, in a rat model of spinal cord injury, which affects the lowermost portion of the spinal cord. This part of the spinal cord and the associated nerve roots are called the conus medullaris and cauda equina. In our experimental model, nerve roots carrying fibers that control muscle function and pelvic organs, such as the bladder and bowel, are injured at the surface of the spinal cord. This injury mimics many of the neurological deficits encountered in human cases.
  • For treatment purposes, we transplant human derived embryonic stem cells, which have been prepared to acquire properties of motor neurons, into the lowermost portion of the rat spinal cord after injury and surgical repair of nerve roots carrying motor fibers. The studies will evaluate both acute and delayed transplantation of human embryonic stem cells, which have acquired properties of motor neurons.
  • During the second year of the studies, we have developed improved protocols to increase our ability to produce large number of motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells. We have also developed improved methods to detect motor neurons during the neuron production process by using fluorescent reporters inside of the cells. The latter development is of great help when sorting and preparing cells with desired properties for transplantation studies. In addition, we have refined our surgical methods to make it less invasive, using a one-sided injury model instead of lesions on both sides of the spinal cord in rats. Specifically, bladder dysfunction can be assessed after a one sided injury of nerve roots and be evaluated using a combination of bladder pressure recordings and electrical recordings referred to as electromyography (EMG) from muscles along the urethra. The revised procedure is well tolerated by the rats and is a suitable approach for studies of chronic injury and cell-based long-term treatments. A research manuscript describing this improved experimental method and refinement has been published. The experimental refinement will greatly assist with our long-term studies on the effects of transplanted motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells. We have also performed transplantations of embryonic human stem cell derived motor neurons into the rat spinal cord and demonstrated surgical feasibility as well as survival of large numbers of neurons in the rat spinal cord. Some of the transplanted cells also demonstrate anatomical markers for motor neurons after transplantation.
  • During the reporting period, we have contined to demonstrate that human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors can be produced in vitro. These motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors are transplanted into the rat spinal cord after a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury and repair of injured roots in the form of surgical re-attachment of the roots to the spinal cord surface. The lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury mimics cauda equina and conus medullaris forms of spinal cord injury, an underserved patient population with paralysis of the legs and loss of bladder and bowel funcion. In this clinically relevant injury and repair model in rats, we have during the past several months demonstrated that transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors are able to survive in the spinal cord of rats over extended periods of time with large numbers of neurons being detectable in the spinal cord grey matter at 1, 2, and 10 weeks after the injury, surgical root repair, and transplantation of the cells. The long term viability of translanted cells suggests integration of the transplanted cells in the host tissues. Some of the cells show expression of motor neuron markers, such as the transcription factor Hb9, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and light microscopy.
  • Additional studies have been performed during this reporting period to address whether the transplanted cells may extend axons into the replanted lumbosacral ventral roots. Interestingly, many human axons were detected in the replanted ventral roots using immunohistochemitry and light microscopy for the detection of human processes. Additional immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these processes contained neurofilaments, which are characteristic for axons. In control experiments, we showed that avulsed roots, which had not been replanted into the spinal cord, did not exhibit any human axons. As expected, surgical reconnection of lesioned ventral roots to the spinal cord is needed in order for the axons of the transplanted human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors to be extended into avulsed ventral roots. Furthermore, in a series of sham operated animals without ventral root lesions, human motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors were also transplanted into the rat spinal cord. Interestingly, the transplanted human motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors were here also able to extend axons into ventral roots, even though the ventral roots had never been lesions. We conclude that transplanted human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons are capable of extending axons into both intact ventrl roots and into ventral roots, which had been avulsed and surgically reattached to the spinal cord using a replantation procedure.
  • In functional studies, we have performed urodynamic studies and voiding behavioral studies in rats after the transplantation of human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors. These studies are still ongoing with additional experiments being performed. However, preliminary studies suggest that the combination of acute repair of avulsed ventral roots and cell transplantation results in a gradual improvement of voiding reflexes. Ongoing studies are addressing the relative contribution that may be provided by the replantation of avulsed ventral roots and by the transplantation of human motor neurons and motor neuron progenitors into the rat spinal cord.
Funding Type: 
Early Translational I
Grant Number: 
TR1-01249
Investigator: 
Name: 
Institution: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$6 762 954
Disease Focus: 
Bone or Cartilage Disease
Stroke
Neurological Disorders
Heart Disease
Neurological Disorders
Skin Disease
Stem Cell Use: 
Adult Stem Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
All adult tissues contain stem cells. Some tissues, like bone marrow and skin, harbor more adult stem cells; other tissues, like muscle, have fewer. When a tissue or organ is injured these stem cells possess a remarkable ability to divide and multiply. In the end, the ability of a tissue to repair itself seems to depend on how many stem cells reside in a particular tissue, and the state of those stem cells. For example, stress, disease, and aging all diminish the capacity of adult stem cells to self-renew and to proliferate, which in turn hinders tissue regeneration. Our strategy is to commandeer the molecular machinery responsible for adult stem cell self-renewal and proliferation and by doing so, stimulate the endogenous program of tissue regeneration. This approach takes advantage of the solution that Nature itself developed for repairing damaged or diseased tissues, and controls adult stem cell proliferation in a localized, highly controlled fashion. This strategy circumvents the immunological, medical, and ethical hurdles that exist when exogenous stem cells are introduced into a human. When utilizing this strategy the goal of reaching clinical trials in human patients within 5 years becomes realistic. Specifically, we will target the growing problem of neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and wound healing diseases by local delivery of a protein that promotes the body’s inherent ability to repair and regenerate tissues. We have evidence that this class of proteins, when delivered locally to an injury site, is able to stimulate adult tissue stem cells to grow and repair/replace the deficient tissue following injury. We have developed technologies to package the protein in a specialized manner that preserves its biological activity but simultaneously restricts its diffusion to unintended regions of the body. For example, when we treat a skeletal injury with this packaged protein we augment the natural ability to heal bone by 350%; and when this protein is delivered to the heart immediately after an infarction cardiac output is improved and complications related to scarring are reduced. This remarkable capacity to augment tissue healing is not limited to bones and the heart: the same powerful effect can be elicited in the brain, and skin injuries. The disease targets of stroke, bone fractures, heart attacks, and skin wounds and ulcers represent an enormous health care burden now, but this burden is expected to skyrocket because our population is quickly aging. Thus, our proposal addresses a present and ongoing challenge to healthcare for the majority of Californians, with a novel therapeutic strategy that mimics the body’s inherent repair mechanisms.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Californians represent 1 in 7 Americans, and make up the single largest healthcare market in the United States. The diseases and injuries that affect Californians affect the rest of the US, and the world. For example, stroke is the third leading cause of death, with more than 700,000 people affected every year. It is a leading cause of serious long-term disability, with an estimated 5.4 million stroke survivors currently alive today. Symptoms of musculoskeletal disease are the number two most cited reasons for visit to a physician. Musculoskeletal disease is the leading cause of work-related and physical disability in the United States, with arthritis being the leading chronic condition reported by the elderly. In adults over the age of 70, 40% suffer from osteoarthritis of the knee and of these nearly 80% have limitation of movement. By 2030, nearly 67 million US adults will be diagnosed with arthritis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death, and is a major cause of disability worldwide. The annual socioeconomic burden posed by cardiovascular disease is estimated to exceed $400 billion annually and remains a major cause of health disparities and rising health care costs. Skin wounds from burns, trauma, or surgery, and chronic wounds associated with diabetes or pressure ulcer, exact a staggering toll on our healthcare system: Burns alone affect 1.25M Americans each year, and the economic global burden of these injuries approaches $50B/yr. In California alone, the annual healthcare expenditures for stroke, skeletal repair, heart attacks, and skin wound healing are staggering and exceed 700,000 cases, 3.5M hospital days, and $34B. We have developed a novel, protein-based therapeutic platform to accelerate and enhance tissue regeneration through activation of adult stem cells. This technology takes advantage of a powerful stem cell factor that is essential for the development and repair of most of the body’s tissues. We have generated the first stable, biologically active recombinant Wnt pathway agonist, and showed that this protein has the ability to activate adult stem cells after tissue injury. Thus, our developmental candidate leverages the body’s natural response to injury. We have generated exciting preclinical results in a variety of animals models including stroke, skeletal repair, heart attack, and skin wounding. If successful, this early translational award would have enormous benefits for the citizens of California and beyond.
Progress Report: 
  • In the first year of CIRM funding our objectives were to optimize the activity of the Wnt protein for use in the body and then to test, in a variety of injury models, the effects of this lipid-packaged form of Wnt. We have made considerable progress on both of these fronts. For example, in Roel Nusse and Jill Helms’ groups, we have been able to generate large amounts of the mouse form of Wnt3a protein and package it into liposomal vesicles, which can then be used by all investigators in their studies of injury and repair. Also, Roel Nusse succeeded in generating human Wnt3a protein. This is a major accomplishment since our ultimate goal is to develop this regenerative medicine tool for use in humans. In Jill Helms’ lab we made steady progress in standardizing the activity of the liposomal Wnt3a formulation, and this is critically important for all subsequent studies that will compare the efficacy of this treatment across multiple injury repair scenarios.
  • Each group began testing the effects of liposomal Wnt3a treatment for their particular application. For example, in Theo Palmer’s group, the investigators tested how liposomal Wnt3a affected cells in the brain following a stroke. We previously found that Wnt3A promotes the growth of neural stem cells in a petri dish and we are now trying to determine if delivery of Wnt3A can enhance the activity of endogenous stem cells in the brain and improve the level of recovery following stroke. Research in the first year examined toxicity of a liposome formulation used to deliver Wnt3a and we found it to be well tolerated after injection into the brains of mice. We also find that liposomal Wnt3a can promote the production of new neurons following stroke. The ongoing research involves experiments to determine if these changes in stem cell activity are accompanied by improved neurological function. In Jill Helms’ group, the investigators tested how liposomal Wnt3a affected cells in a bone injury site. We made a significant discovery this year, by demonstrating that liposomal Wnt3a stimulates the proliferation of skeletal progenitor cells and accelerates their differentiation into osteoblasts (published in Science Translational Medicine 2010). We also started testing liposomal Wnt3a for safety and toxicity issues, both of which are important prerequisites for use of liposomal Wnt3a in humans. Following a heart attack (i.e., myocardial infarction) we found that endogenous Wnt signaling peaks between post-infarct day 5-7. We also found that small aggregates of cardiac cells called cardiospheres respond to Wnt in a dose-responsive manner. In skin wounds, we tested the effect of boosting Wnt signaling during skin wound healing. We found that the injection of Wnt liposomes into wounds enhanced the regeneration of hair follicles, which would otherwise not regenerate and make a scar instead. The speed and strength of wound closure are now being measured.
  • In aggregate, our work on this project continues to move forward with a number of great successes, and encouraging data to support our hypothesis that augmenting Wnt signaling following tissue injury will provide beneficial effects.
  • In the second year of CIRM funding our objectives were to optimize packaging of the developmental candidate, Wnt3a protein, and then to continue to test its efficacy to enhance tissue healing. We continue to make considerable progress on the stated objectives. In Roel Nusse’s laboratory, human Wnt3a protein is now being produced using an FDA-approved cell line, and Jill Helms’ lab the protein is effectively packaged into lipid particles that delay degradation of the protein when it is introduced into the body.
  • Each group has continued to test the effects of liposomal Wnt3a treatment for their particular application. In Theo Palmer’s group we have studied how liposomal Wnt3a affects neurogenesis following stroke. We now know that liposomal Wnt3a transiently stimulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. We don’t see any functional improvement after stroke, though, which is our primary objective.
  • In Jill Helms’ group we’ve now shown that liposomal Wnt3a enhances fracture healing and osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants and now we demonstrate that liposomal Wnt3a also can improve the bone-forming capacity of bone marrow grafts, especially when they are taken from aged animals.
  • We’ve also tested the ability of liposomal Wnt3a to improve heart function after a heart attack (i.e., myocardial infarction). Small aggregates of cardiac progenitor cells called cardiospheres proliferate to Wnt3a in a dose-responsive manner, and we see an initial improvement in cardiac function after treatment of cells with liposomal Wnt3a. the long-term improvements, however, are not significant and this remains our ultimate goal. In skin wounds, we tested the effect of boosting Wnt signaling during wound healing. We found that the injection of liposomal Wnt3a into wounds enhanced the regeneration of hair follicles, which would otherwise not regenerate and make a scar instead. The speed of wound closure is also enhanced in regions of the skin where there are hair follicles.
  • In aggregate, our work continues to move forward with a number of critical successes, and encouraging data to support our hypothesis that augmenting Wnt signaling following tissue injury will provide beneficial effects.
  • Every adult tissue harbors stem cells. Some tissues, like bone marrow and skin, have more adult stem cells and other tissues, like muscle or brain, have fewer. When a tissue is injured, these stem cells divide and multiply but only to a limited extent. In the end, the ability of a tissue to repair itself seems to depend on how many stem cells reside in a particular tissue, and the state of those stem cells. For example, stress, disease, and aging all diminish the capacity of adult stem cells to respond to injury, which in turn hinders tissue healing. One of the great unmet challenges for regenerative medicine is to devise ways to increase the numbers of these “endogenous” stem cells, and revive their ability to self-renew and proliferate.
  • The scientific basis for our work rests upon our demonstration that a naturally occurring stem cell growth factor, Wnt3a, can be packaged and delivered in such a way that it is robustly stimulates stem cells within an injured tissue to divide and self-renew. This, in turn, leads to unprecedented tissue healing in a wide array of bone injuries especially in aged animals. As California’s population ages, the cost to treat such skeletal injuries in the elderly will skyrocket. Thus, our work addresses a present and ongoing challenge to healthcare for the majority of Californians and the world, and we do it by mimicking the body’s natural response to injury and repair.
  • To our knowledge, there is no existing technology that displays such effectiveness, or that holds such potential for the stem cell-based treatment of skeletal injuries, as does a L-Wnt3a strategy. Because this approach directly activates the body’s own stem cells, it avoids many of the pitfalls associated with the introduction of foreign stem cells or virally reprogrammed autologous stem cells into the human body. In summary, our data show that L-Wnt3a constitutes a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of skeletal injuries, especially those in individuals with diminished healing potential.
  • This progress report covers the period between Sep 01 2012through Aug 31 2013, and summarizes the work accomplished under ET funding TR1-01249. Under this award we developed a Wnt protein-based platform for activating a patient’s own stem cells for the purpose of tissue regeneration.
  • At the beginning of our grant period we generated research grade human WNT3A protein in quantities sufficient for all our discovery experiments. We then tested the ability of this WNT protein therapeutic to improve the healing response in animal models of stroke, heart attack, skin wounding, and bone fracture. These experimental models recapitulated some of the most prevalent and debilitating human diseases that collectively, affect millions of Californians.
  • At the end of year 2, we assembled an external review panel to select the promising clinical indication. The scientific advisory board unanimously selected skeletal repair as the leading indication. The WNT protein is notoriously difficult to purify; consequently in year 3 we developed new methods to streamline the purification of WNT proteins, and the packaging of the WNT protein into liposomal vesicles that stabilized the protein for in vivo use.
  • In years 3 and 4 we continued to accrue strong scientific evidence in both large and small animal models that a WNT protein therapeutic accelerates bone regeneration in critical size bony non-unions, in fractures, and in cases of implant osseointegration. In this last year of funding, we clarified and characterized the mechanism of action of the WNT protein, by showing that it activates endogenous stem cells, which in turn leads to faster healing of a range of different skeletal defects.
  • In this last year we also identified a therapeutic dose range for the WNT protein, and developed a route and method of delivery that was simultaneously effective and yet limited the body’s exposure to this potent stem cell factor. We initiated preliminary safety studies to identify potential risks, and compared the effects of WNT treatment with other commercially available bone growth factors. In sum, we succeeded in moving our early translational candidate from exploratory studies to validation, and are now ready to enter into the IND-enabling phase of therapeutic candidate development.
  • This progress report covers the period between Sep 01 2013 through April 30 2014, and summarizes the work accomplished under ET funding TR101249. Under this award we developed a Wnt protein-based platform for activating a patient’s own stem cells for purposes of tissue regeneration.
  • At the beginning of our grant period we generated research grade human WNT3A protein in quantities sufficient for all our discovery experiments. We then tested the ability of this WNT protein therapeutic to improve the healing response in animal models of stroke, heart attack, skin wounding, and bone fracture. These experimental models recapitulated some of the most prevalent and debilitating human diseases that collectively, affect millions of Californians. At the conclusion of Year 2 an external review panel was assembled and charged with the selection of a single lead indication for further development. The scientific advisory board unanimously selected skeletal repair as the lead indication.
  • In year 3 we accrued addition scientific evidence, using both large and small animal models, demonstrating that a WNT protein therapeutic accelerated bone healing. Also, we developed new methods to streamline the purification of WNT proteins, and improved our method of packaging of the WNT protein into liposomal vesicles (e.g., L-WNT3A) for in vivo use.
  • In year 4 we clarified the mechanism of action of L-WNT3A, by demonstrating that it activates endogenous stem cells and therefore leads to accelerated bone healing. We also continued our development studies, by identifying a therapeutic dose range for L-WNT3A, as well as a route and method of delivery that is both effective and safe. We initiated preliminary safety studies to identify potential risks, and compared the effects of L-WNT3A with other, commercially available bone growth factors.
  • In year 5 we initiated two new preclinical studies aimed at demonstrating the disease-modifying activity of L-WNT3A in spinal fusion and osteonecrosis. These two new indications were chosen by a CIRM review panel because they represent an unmet need in California and the nation. We also initiated development of a scalable manufacturing and formulation process for both the WNT3A protein and L-WNT3A formulation. These two milestones were emphasized by the CIRM review panel to represent major challenges to commercialization of L-WNT3A; consequently, accomplishment of these milestones is a critical yardstick by which progress towards an IND filing can be assessed.
Funding Type: 
Tools and Technologies II
Grant Number: 
RT2-02022
Investigator: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$1 493 928
Disease Focus: 
Parkinson's Disease
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Embryonic Stem Cell
iPS Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the capacity to differentiate into every cell in the adult body, and they are thus a highly promising source of differentiated cells for the investigation and treatment of numerous human diseases. For example, neurodegenerative disorders are an increasing healthcare problem that affect the lives of millions of Americans, and Parkinson's Disease (PD) in particular exacts enormous personal and economic tolls. Expanding hPSCs and directing their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, the cell type predominantly lost in PD, promises to yield cells that can be used in cell replacement therapies. However, developing technologies to create the enormous numbers of safe and healthy dopaminergic neurons required for clinical development and implementation represents a bottleneck in the field, because the current systems for expanding and differentiating hPSCs face numerous challenges including difficulty in scaling up cell production, concerns with the safety of some materials used in the current cell culture systems, and limited reproducibility of such systems. An emerging principle in stem cell engineering is that basic advances in stem cell biology can be translated towards the creation of “synthetic stem cell niches” that emulate the properties of natural microenvironments and tissues. We have made considerable progress in engineering bioactive materials to support hESC expansion and dopaminergic differentiation. For example, basic knowledge of how hESCs interact with the matrix that surrounds them has led to progress in synthetic, biomimetic hydrogels that have biochemical and mechanical properties to support hESC expansion. Furthermore, biology often presents biochemical signals that are patterned or structured at the nanometer scale, and our application of materials chemistry has yielded synthetic materials that imitate the nanostructured properties of endogenous ligands and thereby promise to enhance the potency of growth factors and morphogens for cell differentiation. We propose to build upon this progress to create general platforms for hPSC expansion and differentiation through two specific aims: 1) To determine whether a fully defined, three dimensional (3D) synthetic matrix for expanding immature hPSCs can rapidly and scaleably generate large cell numbers for subsequent differentiation into potentially any cell , and 2) To investigate whether a 3D, synthetic matrix can support differentiation into healthy, implantable human DA neurons in high quantities and yields. This blend of stem cell biology, neurobiology, materials science, and bioengineering to create “synthetic stem cell niche” technologies with broad applicability therefore addresses critical challenges in regenerative medicine.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
This proposal will develop novel tools and capabilities that will strongly enhance the scientific, technological, and economic development of stem cell therapeutics in California. The most important net benefit will be for the treatment of human diseases. Efficiently expanding immature hPSCs in a scaleable, safe, and economical manner is a greatly enabling capability that would impact many downstream medical applications. The development of platforms for scaleable and safe cell differentiation will benefit therapeutic efforts for Parkinson’s Disease. Furthermore, the technologies developed in this proposal are designed to be tunable, such that they can be readily adapted to numerous downstream applications. The resulting technologies have strong potential to benefit human health. Furthermore, this proposal directly addresses several research targets of this RFA – the development and validation of stem cell scale-up technologies including novel cell expansion methods and bioreactors for both human pluripotent cells and differentiated cell types – indicating that CIRM believes that the proposed capabilities are a priority for California’s stem cell effort. While the potential applications of the proposed technology are broad, we will apply it to a specific and urgent biomedical problem: developing systems for generating clinically relevant quantities of dopaminergic neurons from hPSCs, part of a critical path towards developing therapies for Parkinson’s disease. This proposal would therefore work towards developing capabilities that are critical for hPSC-based regenerative medicine applications in the nervous system to clinically succeed. The principal investigator and co-investigator have a strong record of translating basic science and engineering into practice through interactions with industry, particularly within California. Finally, this collaborative project will focus diverse research groups with many students on an important interdisciplinary project at the interface of science and engineering, thereby training future employees and contributing to the technological and economic development of California.
Progress Report: 
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the capacity to differentiate into every cell in the adult body, and they are thus a highly promising source of differentiated cells for the investigation and treatment of numerous human diseases. For example, neurodegenerative disorders are an increasing healthcare problem that affect the lives of millions of Americans, and Parkinson's Disease (PD) in particular exacts enormous personal and economic tolls. Expanding hPSCs and directing their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, the cell type predominantly lost in PD, promises to yield cells that can be used in cell replacement therapies. However, developing technologies to create the enormous numbers of safe and healthy dopaminergic neurons required for clinical development and implementation represents a bottleneck in the field, because the current systems for expanding and differentiating hPSCs face numerous challenges including difficulty in scaling up cell production, concerns with the safety of some materials used in the current cell culture systems, and limited reproducibility of such systems.
  • This project has two central aims: 1) To determine whether a fully defined, three dimensional (3D) synthetic matrix for expanding immature hPSCs can rapidly and scaleably generate large cell numbers for subsequent differentiation into potentially any cell , and 2) To investigate whether a 3D, synthetic matrix can support differentiation into healthy, implantable human DA neurons in high quantities and yields. In the first year of this project, we have made progress in both aims. Specifically, we are conducting high throughput studies to optimize matrix properties in aim 1, and we have developed a material formulation in aim 2 that supports a level of DA differentiation that we are now beginning to optimize with a high throughput approach.
  • This blend of stem cell biology, neurobiology, materials science, and bioengineering to create “synthetic stem cell niche” technologies with broad applicability therefore addresses critical challenges in regenerative medicine.
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the capacity to differentiate into every cell in the adult body, and they are thus a highly promising source of differentiated cells for the investigation and treatment of numerous human diseases. For example, neurodegenerative disorders are an increasing healthcare problem that affect the lives of millions of Americans, and Parkinson's Disease (PD) in particular exacts enormous personal and economic tolls. Expanding hPSCs and directing their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, the cell type predominantly lost in PD, promises to yield cells that can be used in cell replacement therapies. However, developing technologies to create the enormous numbers of safe and healthy dopaminergic neurons required for clinical development and implementation represents a bottleneck in the field, because the current systems for expanding and differentiating hPSCs face numerous challenges including difficulty in scaling up cell production, concerns with the safety of some materials used in the current cell culture systems, and limited reproducibility of such systems.
  • This project has two central aims: 1) To determine whether a fully defined, three dimensional (3D) synthetic matrix for expanding immature hPSCs can rapidly and scaleably generate large cell numbers for subsequent differentiation into potentially any cell , and 2) To investigate whether a 3D, synthetic matrix can support differentiation into healthy, implantable human DA neurons in high quantities and yields. In the first year of this project, we have made progress in both aims. Specifically, we are conducting high throughput studies to optimize matrix properties in aim 1, and we have developed a material formulation in aim 2 that supports a level of DA differentiation that we are now beginning to optimize with a high throughput approach.
  • This blend of stem cell biology, neurobiology, materials science, and bioengineering to create “synthetic stem cell niche” technologies with broad applicability therefore addresses critical challenges in regenerative medicine.
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the capacity to differentiate into every cell in the adult body, and they are thus a highly promising source of differentiated cells for the investigation and treatment of numerous human diseases. For example, neurodegenerative disorders are an increasing healthcare problem that affect the lives of millions of Americans, and Parkinson's Disease (PD) in particular exacts enormous personal and economic tolls. Expanding hPSCs and directing their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, the cell type predominantly lost in PD, promises to yield cells that can be used in cell replacement therapies. However, developing technologies to create the enormous numbers of safe and healthy dopaminergic neurons required for clinical development and implementation represents a bottleneck in the field, because the current systems for expanding and differentiating hPSCs face numerous challenges including difficulty in scaling up cell production, concerns with the safety of some materials used in the current cell culture systems, and limited reproducibility of such systems.
  • This project has two central aims: 1) To determine whether a fully defined, three dimensional (3D) synthetic matrix for expanding immature hPSCs can rapidly and scaleably generate large cell numbers for subsequent differentiation into potentially any cell , and 2) To investigate whether a 3D, synthetic matrix can support differentiation into healthy, implantable human DA neurons in high quantities and yields. In the first year of this project, we have made progress in both aims. Specifically, we are conducting high throughput studies to optimize matrix properties in aim 1, and we have developed a material formulation in aim 2 that supports a level of DA differentiation that we are now beginning to optimize with a high throughput approach.
  • This blend of stem cell biology, neurobiology, materials science, and bioengineering to create “synthetic stem cell niche” technologies with broad applicability therefore addresses critical challenges in regenerative medicine.
Funding Type: 
Tools and Technologies III
Grant Number: 
RT3-07914
Investigator: 
Name: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$1 818 751
Disease Focus: 
Intestinal Disease
Pediatrics
Neurological Disorders
Stem Cell Use: 
Adult Stem Cell
Public Abstract: 
The intestine performs the essential function of absorbing food and water into the body. Without a functional intestine, children and adults cannot eat normal meals, and these patients depend on intravenous nutrition to sustain life. Many of these patients do not have a neural system that coordinates the function of the intestine. These patients have a poor quality of life, and the cost of medical care is over $200,000 per year for each patient. Stem cell therapies offer potential cures for these patients while avoiding the risks of invasive procedures and hazardous treatments. A novel approach to treat these patients is to use stem cells derived from the patient’s own skin to generate the neural system. This has been shown to be feasible in small animals, and the next step hinges on the demonstration of these results in a large animal model of intestinal dysfunction. We will develop a model in large animals that can be used to test the ability of skin-derived stem cells to form the neural system. Skin-derived stem cells will be isolated from large animal models and human skin to demonstrate their potential to generate a functional neural system. These cells will be transplanted into the animal model to determine the best way for these cells to make the intestine function properly. This research will gather critical information needed to begin a clinical trial using skin-derived cells to treat intestinal dysfunction.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Gastrointestinal dysfunction destroys the lives of thousands of Californians. These Californians have frequent and prolonged hospitalizations and lost wages due to their chronic illness. It is estimated that the health care cost of Californians with gastrointestinal neuromuscular dysfunction is over 400 million dollars annually. Currently, most of these patients are covered by the state’s insurance agency. Stem cell therapies offer potential cures for these patients and reduce this economic burden. The proposed research will obtain critical information needed to begin a clinical trial using skin-derived cells to treat patients with intestinal dysfunction. The California economy will significantly benefit from this research through the reduced costs for health care and increased quality of life of the affected Californians. Additionally, this work will add to the state’s growing stem cell industry and will increase employment opportunities and revenue by the state of California. The educational benefit to Californians involved in this research project will also maintain California’s position in leading the stem cell effort in the future.
Funding Type: 
hiPSC Derivation
Grant Number: 
ID1-06557
Investigator: 
Type: 
PI
ICOC Funds Committed: 
$16 000 000
Disease Focus: 
Developmental Disorders
Genetic Disorder
Heart Disease
Infectious Disease
Alzheimer's Disease
Neurological Disorders
Autism
Respiratory Disorders
Vision Loss
Cell Line Generation: 
iPS Cell
oldStatus: 
Active
Public Abstract: 
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate to nearly any cells of the body, thereby providing a new paradigm for studying normal and aberrant biological networks in nearly all stages of development. Donor-specific iPSCs and differentiated cells made from them can be used for basic and applied research, for developing better disease models, and for regenerative medicine involving novel cell therapies and tissue engineering platforms. When iPSCs are derived from a disease-carrying donor; the iPSC-derived differentiated cells may show the same disease phenotype as the donor, producing a very valuable cell type as a disease model. To facilitate wider access to large numbers of iPSCs in order to develop cures for polygenic diseases, we will use a an episomal reprogramming system to produce 3 well-characterized iPSC lines from each of 3,000 selected donors. These donors may express traits related to Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cerebral palsy, diabetes, or respiratory diseases. The footprint-free iPSCs will be derived from donor peripheral blood or skin biopsies. iPSCs made by this method have been thoroughly tested, routinely grown at large scale, and differentiated to produce cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. The 9,000 iPSC lines developed in this proposal will be made widely available to stem cell researchers studying these often intractable diseases.
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer great promise to the large number of Californians suffering from often intractable polygenic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and respiratory disease. iPSCs can be generated from numerous adult tissues, including blood or skin, in 4–5 weeks and then differentiated to almost any desired terminal cell type. When iPSCs are derived from a disease-carrying donor, the iPSC-derived differentiated cells may show the same disease phenotype as the donor. In these cases, the cells will be useful for understanding disease biology and for screening drug candidates, and California researchers will benefit from access to a large, genetically diverse iPSC bank. The goal of this project is to reprogram 3,000 tissue samples from patients who have been diagnosed with various complex diseases and from healthy controls. These tissue samples will be used to generate fully characterized, high-quality iPSC lines that will be banked and made readily available to researchers for basic and clinical research. These efforts will ultimately lead to better medicines and/or cellular therapies to treat afflicted Californians. As iPSC research progresses to commercial development and clinical applications, more and more California patients will benefit and a substantial number of new jobs will be created in the state.
Progress Report: 
  • First year progress on grant ID1-06557, " Generation and Characterization of High-Quality, Footprint-Free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Lines From 3000 Donors to Investigate Multigenic Disease" has met all agreed-upon milestones. In particular, Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) has taken lease to approximately 5000 square feet of lab space at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA. The majority of this space is located within the new CIRM-funded Stem Cell Research Building at the Buck Institute and was extensively reconfigured to meet the specific needs of this grant. All equipment, including tissue culture safety cabinets and incubators, liquid-handling robotics, and QC instrumentation have been installed and qualified. A total of 16 scientists have been hired and trained (13 in Production and 3 in Quality) and more than 20 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been developed and approved specifically for this project. These SOPs serve to govern the daily activities of the Production and Quality staff and help ensure consistency and quality throughout the iPSC derivation and characterization process. In addition, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) had to be developed to handle the large amount of data generated by this project and to track all samples from start to finish. The first and most important phase of this LIMS project has been completed; additional functionalities will likely be added to the LIMS during the next year, but completion of phase 1 will allow us to enter full production mode on schedule in the first quarter of year 2. Procedures for the shipping, infectious disease testing, and processing of donor samples were successfully implemented with the seven Tissue Collectors. To date, over 700 samples have been received from these Tissue Collectors and derivation of the first 50 patient-derived iPSC lines has been completed on schedule. These cells have been banked in the Coriell BioRepository, also located at the Buck Institute. The first Distribution Banks will be available for commercial release during year 2.

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