Efficient preservation and banking of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and derivatives are critical components of any plan for using these products to regenerate tissues in clinical settings. Banking hESC will provide sufficient time to derive products and/or send them to medical centers. Unfortunately, current methods for cryopreservation of hESC exposes the cells to rapid changes in water content, formation of dangerous ice crystals, exposure to chemicals that prevent ice crystals but are themselves soewhat toxic, and significant shifts in temperature. The result is that production of human embryonic hESC is inefficient, hampered by poor recovery due to cell death, loss of self-renewal capability, and changes in gene expression that indicate the nature of the cells has altered during cell processing. Some researchers have explored vitrification, (the transformation from a liquid into a highly immobile, noncrystalline, amorphous solid state, known as the ìglass stateî) as a method of preservation, whih has been promising; however, it has not been possible to adapt vitrification methods to produce large enough batches of hESC to keep up with increased culture and propagation methods. . There is great need to formulate effective methods, adaptable to manufacturing large stable batches of viable hESC for long-term preservation,
This proposal addresses two types of technology development solicited by CIRM 1) creation and design of novel tools and technologies and 2) optimization, scale up and application of an existing tool or technology for which there is proof of concept.
In this project, we will apply our novel patent-pending technology, [REDACTED] process to stem cell preservation. [REDACTED] dries sensitive biological material by vaporization (simultaneous sublimation, boiling, and evaporation) from a slush state several degrees below 0∞C. The [REDACTED] technology provides gentle, cost-effective and efficient industrial scale stabilization of sensitive biologicals, thereby allowing production of sensitive biological products not possible by existing methods of manuacture. For this project we will use [REDACTED] for dehydration and subsequent vitrification of five human stem cell lines. Our preliminary data indicates that utilizing the combination of [REDACTED] before vitrification and utilizing preservation solutions of low molecular weight polyols can produce effective hESC. Our approach for formulation of less toxic vitrification solutions has been used with high success to preserve drosophila fly embryos in liquid nitrogen with about 80% of the embryos hatching nto viable flies after preservation. Through the use of the novel [REDACTED] technology and subsequent vitrification utilizing low molecular weight polyols in the preservation solutions, we should be able to optimize the current inefficient vitrification process to produce quantities of viable hESC in keeping with current manufacturing requirements.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) offer great promise in the development of medical treatments for a wide range of conditions. These include damage to the brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscles and the heart. Treatments that have been proposed follow either physical trauma (e.g. spinal cord injuries), degenerative conditions (e.g. Parkinson's disease), or even genetic diseases (in combination with gene therapy). Yet further treatments using hESC could potentially be developed thanks to their ability to repair extensive tissue damage.
Though much success and potential has been demonstrated from research using adult stem cells, many are of the opinion that the differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells has greater usefulness. For example, embryonic stem cells are considered more useful for nervous system therapies because researchers have not been able to identify and isolate neural progenitors from adult tissues.
Though there are not yet any ongoing therapies or even clinical trials for hESC, research toward efficient manufacture and preservation of these potentially valuable tools in the arsenal against disease is extremely important for successful research and product development of human tissue regeneration interventions. Improvements in hESC preservation methodology will facilitate banking and safety/efficacy testing for the wide range of diseases for which hESC therapy may be applicable.
Potential applications of stem cell intervention are coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke and head/spinal cord injuries. The number of Californians who die from these disease each year are: coronary heart disease (52,000), diabetes (27,000) stroke (16,000). Hospitalization rates for nonfatal head injury is 25,000 and spinal cord 1400, both of which could potentially be mitigated by hESC intervention.
Through the "Preservation by Vitrification" preservation methods are being targeted toward hESC, methodologies could be developed that are applicable to preservation of adult stem cells.
Besides research toward life-saving interventions, establishment of hESC efficient manufacture and preservation methods through a California company is likely to provide economic stimulus as the value of this technology is realized.
In total, the impact of this research is far-reaching with respect to potential for individual lives saved, range of medical conditions alleviated, and the state’s economic health.