Genome-wide Regulation of 5hmC, 5mC, and Gene Expression by Tet1 Hydroxylase in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

Journal: 
Mol Cell
Publication Year: 
2011
Authors: 
Y Xu , F Wu , L Tan , L Kong , L Xiong , J Deng , A J Barbera , L Zheng , H Zhang , S Huang , J Min , T Nicholson , T Chen , G Xu , Y Shi , K Zhang , Y G Shi
Public Summary: 
Scientific Abstract: 
DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine (5mC) in the mammalian genome is a key epigenetic event critical for various cellular processes. The ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of 5mC-hydroxylases, which convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), offers a way for dynamic regulation of DNA methylation. Here we report that Tet1 binds to unmodified C or 5mC- or 5hmC-modified CpG-rich DNA through its CXXC domain. Genome-wide mapping of Tet1 and 5hmC reveals mechanisms by which Tet1 controls 5hmC and 5mC levels in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We also uncover a comprehensive gene network influenced by Tet1. Collectively, our data suggest that Tet1 controls DNA methylation both by binding to CpG-rich regions to prevent unwanted DNA methyltransferase activity, and by converting 5mC to 5hmC through hydroxylase activity. This Tet1-mediated antagonism of CpG methylation imparts differential maintenance of DNA methylation status at Tet1 targets, ultimately contributing to mESC differentiation and the onset of embryonic development.

© 2013 California Institute for Regenerative Medicine